Dietary interventions have a significant impact on the prevention, progression, and management of obesity and insulin resistance, through a number of mechanisms, including modification of the gut microbiome. In fact, the microbiome has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of pathologies, including obesity and insulin resistance.
Supplementing fish oil, which contains omega-3 fatty acids, has been shown to have beneficial effects on diabetes and obesity, and studies have shown that fish collagen can have beneficial effects on diet-related obesity. However, the contribution of fish extracts to the gut microbiome has not been studied, nor has the combination of fish collagen with fish-derived extracts in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and the microbiome.
In the present study, a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD) -induced obesity and type 2 diabetes was used to study the effects of fish supplements on obesity and diabetes and to determine changes in the gut microbiome.
Mice were fed a high fat diet containing 5% w / w for nine weeks. Cod powder (CP) and fish complex (FC), which consists of cod, coalfish and haddock and contains higher concentrations of the health-promoting minerals calcium, phosphorus and zinc, were tested individually or in combination.
Stool samples were collected, DNA was extracted, and metagenomic analysis was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis.
Based on the identified OTUs, a Principal Component Analysis (PCoA) was performed to assess the genetic clustering of the different diet groups. A total of 1,463,319 quality-filtered sequences were generated, which were assigned to 7137 unique OTUs.
According to the PCoA, three different groups were formed; one includes the lean diet (ND) mice, one includes the groups that were supplemented with collagen-containing foods (collagen from Seagarden Company in Norway), and a close group includes the high-fat diets, FC, CP and FC + CP -Groups.
The PCoA showed significant differences between the lean (ND) and HFD groups. Interestingly, the groups that were supplemented with food containing collagen clustered at a great distance from the other complexes, suggesting a differentiated bacterial niche in the gut microbiome.
Although FC and FC + CP increased insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet, they did not show profound differences in gut microbiome as the identified OTUs showed. The same was true for mice fed CP.
The ND-fed group also proved to be the most diverse group in terms of biodiversity, averaging 1303 unique OTUs, while groups supplemented with collagen-containing diets were found to be the least diversified, averaging 731 individual OTUs.
The researchers conclude that dietary supplements containing fish complex (FC), fish complex in combination with cod powder (FC + CP), or cod powder combined with collagen (CP + C) improved the model for diet-related glucose intolerance regardless of the accumulation of belly fat in a mouse Obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, food supplements containing collagen significantly modulate the intestinal microbiome in high-fat obesity in mice.
They say their results suggest that fish supplements suppress diet-related type 2 diabetes, which can be partially mediated by changes in the gut microbiome. Therefore, fish-derived dietary supplements, and particularly those containing fish collagen, have potentially beneficial properties as dietary supplements in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome by modulating the gut microbiome.
“Here we show that fish-based dietary supplements reduce glucose intolerance in a model of high-fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice, and in particular dietary supplements with fish complex, fish complex combined with cod powder and cod powder combined with collagen.
“In addition, dietary supplements containing fish-derived collagen modulated the gut microbiome in obese mice and induced the colonization of beneficial bacteria known to have beneficial properties in suppressing metabolic inflammation and diabetes, and that effect in part is due to the collagen-induced modulation of the gut microbiome. “
Source: Marine Drugs
Axarlis, K .; Daskalaki, MG; Michailidou, S .; Androulaki, N .; Tsoureki, A .; Mouchtaropoulou, E .; Kolliniati, O .; Lapi, i .; Dermitzaki, E .; Venihaki, M .; Kousoulaki, K .; Argiriou, A .; Marsni, ZE; Tsatsanis, C.
“Fish extract supplementation suppresses diabetes and modulates the gut microbiome in a murine model of diet-induced obesity”